Uses of Titanium Nitride Ceramic Materials in Biomedicine

What does titanium nitride mean?

The typical NaCl structure of titanium nitride is TiN. This is a cubic-shaped face-centred lattice that has an average lattice a=0.4241nm. Titanium atoms are at the corners. TiN can be altered within certain limits without altering the TiN composition. TiN powder is usually yellow-brown. The ultrafine TiN Powder is black. TiN crystals have a golden color. TiN is very resistant to thermal shock, has a melting point of 2950oC, a density of 5.43-5.44g/cm3, Mohs Hardness of 8-9 and a high thermal shock resistance. TiN has a melting point that is greater than many transition metal nitrides. However, its density is much lower than the most transition metal nitrides. This makes it a highly heat-resistant and distinctive material. TiN has a crystal structure similar to TiC but the C atoms have been replaced by N atoms.

Titanium Nitride Application in Biomedicine

In clinical medicine, the implant has been used extensively as an implant to provide interventional treatment for congenital heart disease. It is used to treat atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect. The majority of concentric occluders made from nickel-titanium alloy materials contain at least 55% nickel. The long-term consequences of excessive nickel exposure can lead to allergies or poisoning in the human body. Surface purification membranes of the occluder nickeltitanium-alloy alloy can be damaged. Internal nickel ions released in complex environments of the body may increase nickel content. This will further deteriorate tissue compatibility.

According to relevant studies, titanium nitride is an alloy with excellent biocompatibility. It was previously used as a coronary stent material. The thrombus origin of this metal is therefore much lower that that of nickel-titanium. To address this problem scientists developed Cera ceramic membranes that occlude using high-energy Ion precipitation coating technology. These retain the original interventricular and atrial septal seals, which were derived from the original nickel-titanium occluder. Patent ductus arteriosus and the design of this occluder use plasma technology to uniformly coat the titanium nitride tipN TiN layer on the surface. The metal titanium coating, along with C, N and O, are converted into a biological layer. This improves both the corrosion resistance and the compatibility between biological tissues and blood. The Cera ceramic membrane is superior to ordinary nickel-titanium in terms of cell creeping performance, as evidenced by the animal experiment results. It reduces the risk for congenital heart defects, improves healing times and decreases the likelihood of thrombosis. Platelet adhesion rates and hemolysis are lower than with ordinary nickel-titanium. Cera has currently been approved by Russia, India, Brazil and Russia. The Cera occluder has been approved by the European Union, India, Brazil and Russia for use in congenital heart diseases.
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