Nature has a crystal. It is just as fascinating as the Egyptian pyramids and equally as stunning as materials from other worlds. Its beauty led the 17th-century alchemists who believed bismuth was a symbol of energy and mystery. The beautiful and mysterious material was a source of light, color, and complex structure. It is included in the “synthesis of the philosopher’s stone”. It is called the crystallization or bismuth.
Let’s talk about bismuth. This is a type of metal that has varying colors from silver to rose. It’s brittle, easily crushable and chemically stable. Bismuth can be found as a free metal or mineral in the natural world. Bismuth used to be considered the most stable element, with the largest atomic mass. But it was later discovered that it is extremely radioactive. Bismuth can be considered an environment-friendly brittle metal due to its high resistivity, strong diamagnetic and other properties. It can be used to make low-melting alloys, metallurgical additives, catalysts or medicine. Nano bismuth powder can be substituted for lead as it has excellent lubrication properties and synergistic effects with the active element, sulfur. Nano bismuth is also magneto resistant and hot spot effective, which have been demonstrated in recent research. These properties could make it a useful material for thermoelectric conversion and magnetic induction.
Bismuth is a Metallurgical Lubricants
Nano bismuth has been widely employed in metallurgical oils.
Two solid surfaces in direct contact during sliding, rolling and impact movements will undoubtedly cause wear. It can result in surface damage, loss, or even complete collapse, which could affect the product’s performance. The friction loss is responsible for around one third to one half of current world energy consumption. The widespread use of lubricants in such an environment is greatly encouraged.
Nano-lubricants are now a reality and have blown away many metallurgists in the process. A lubricant must have two functions. Because of the high surface energy of the lubricating oil the friction is just starting. The particles then adhere to the friction, producing a layer called physical adsorption. Nano-lubricants provide a good lubrication result because nano-powder particles have spherical properties and act as “ball bearings”, improving their performance. In addition, when exposed to high heat and heavy loads, the nano-powder particles in between friction surfaces become flattened. This creates a sliding mechanism and reduces wear and friction. Third, adsorption. Third, adsorption. The organic matter that is used to modify nanoparticles can easily be attracted to the frictional metal. A layer of organic composite films is then formed to remove the metal surface. It plays an important role in reducing friction, anti-wear, and other functions. Fourth, there is the role of repair. The repair function of nanometer metal powder is to fill in the small pits or damaged areas on the surface.
Bismuth: The Prospect
Bismuth, an environmentally friendly heavy metal element, meets all of these requirements. This element has a positive synergistic relationship with common lubricating-oil additives elements sulfur or phosphorus. The addition of a single nanoparticle of bismuth can clearly improve base oil’s anti-friction performance as well as its bearing capacity. Thus, it is likely that the Nanobismuth powder will become one of the ingredients of green additives to lubricating-oil.
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